What is Redlining in economics? This practice of selectively classifying neighborhoods by race, is nothing new. In the 1930s, the federal government began redlining real estate. This process designated neighborhoods with higher risk of default as “red” and prevented them from getting mortgage loans. The impact of redlining could be felt decades later. In some neighborhoods, homes were worth less than half what they would cost in neighborhoods that were not redlined. This disparity increased dramatically in the last two decades.
Redlining began with insurance, and was often practiced with community support. In residential housing, appraisal manuals would establish certain areas as “high risk,” and lending practices would only make loans to certain areas based on race and ethnicity. This practice was widespread until the Fair Housing Act came along. It was not until the 1970s, however, that government legislation outlawed such practices. While the practice is no longer widespread, it still remains controversial.
The first significant impact of redlining was on the African American community. Black veterans moved into predominantly white suburbias during the 1960s, and the white residents were displaced. Consequently, market values of homes in the newly-occupied communities dropped dramatically. As a result, bank lenders drew red lines around these neighborhoods to represent areas they would not invest in. Other companies subsequently hampered the economic vitality of black communities.
While redlining is often associated with real estate, the term refers to any financial transaction in which race or ethnicity is a factor. While the Fair Housing Act prohibits discrimination in such transactions, redlining has still left its scars on many communities in the United States. Even today, the Fair Housing Act and the Fair Housing Amendments Act prohibit discrimination in real estate transactions based on race, color, religion, national origin, disability, and family status.
While racial segregation has its roots in historical times, the redlining process in the United States dates from the 1930s. Redlining began with the National Housing Act of 1934, and the Federal Housing Administration was created concurrently. The first redlining initiative was developed by Homer Hoyt, who worked for the FHA. The redlining process was a key element of the agency’s first underwriting guidelines for mortgage loans.
Despite these facts, the policy proposals to remedy redlining fail to address the real issues of poverty in Black neighborhoods. Instead, they skew their impact towards a few major cities and neighborhoods. It is necessary for policymakers to consider these disparities when addressing the issue of redlining. In the meantime, they cannot simply focus on diversifying the cities when the true problem lies elsewhere. The country suffers from racial inequities of wealth, and the policies they advocate should focus on closing this gap.
The practice of redlining is considered unfair. It involves denial of credit or loans based on race. Moreover, it includes discrimination based on religion or sexual preference. Realtors who display only properties featuring white people may be guilty of redlining, while others may show only homes with racial-exclusive images. Another form of redlining is “lowballing.” This practice involves excessively low appraisals of properties, thereby causing the down payment to be higher and making loan approval harder.
When redlining is used in real estate, neighborhoods containing black residents were typically located near the center of urban areas. Although these neighborhoods differ in size and demographics, the redlining effect on black populations has spread far beyond the original maps. A recent study of 114 cities revealed that black residents were significantly higher in these neighborhoods than in non-redlined areas. In addition, redlining has disproportionately affected neighborhoods in terms of income and property values.
In conclusion, redlining is a discriminatory practice used in economics that has a long and complicated history. It is still used today in some ways, but there are movements to end it. It’s important to be aware of what redlining is and how it affects people so that we can work together to end this injustice.