Leadership Styles.

Leadership style is a set of behaviors, attributes and traits which are used by an individual to guide a team or organization towards its desired objectives. It is the manner in which power is utilized and exercised by a leader in order to influence and motivate subordinates. Leadership styles refer to the methods employed by leaders to provide direction, implement plans and motivate people. Different types of leadership styles have been identified and studied exhaustively, with research focusing on their impact in various contexts.

Leadership is an essential part of any organization, and the style of leadership used can have a significant impact on the productivity and morale of an organization. There are many different styles of leadership that have been identified, each with their own unique strengths and weaknesses. In this article, we will explore some of the most common leadership styles and discuss how they can be applied to maximize team performance.

Leadership styles refer to the various approaches that a leader may adopt in order to lead their team effectively. These styles are based on the personality and behavior of a leader, as well as their beliefs about what makes an effective leader. There is no one-size-fits-all leadership style, and a good leader should be able to adapt their approach depending on the situation.

The most common leadership styles include autocratic, democratic, and laissez-faire. An autocratic leader makes all the decisions themselves without any input from their team members. This style can be effective in certain situations where quick decisions need to be made but can lead to resentment among team members who feel excluded from the decision-making process. A democratic leader involves their team members in decision-making and encourages collaboration which fosters creativity and innovation within a group.

The types of leadership styles include:

Democratic Leadership

Democratic Leadership is a style of leadership that focuses on providing team members with an environment for participation in decision making processes. This style of leadership encourages employees to take an active role in the direction of their work and to voice their opinions and ideas. It relies on the concept of collective responsibility, where all members are accountable for achieving the desired outcome. This type of leadership often requires effective communication and collaboration between team members and the leader or manager.

Democratic leadership refers to a style of management that is characterized by open communication, collaboration, and consensus-building. In this type of leadership, decision-making is distributed across the team or organization rather than being centralized in the hands of one person. Democratic leaders believe that every member of the team has valuable insights and ideas to contribute.

This leadership style allows everyone to participate, exchange ideas, and have their opinions heard and encourages discussions. However, the group leader still needs to provide guidance and direction to maintain the goals and objectives being pursued. The leader needs to think about how quickly decisions need to be made, who needs to be involved, and whether these people can agree in a reasonable amount of time. If not, this kind of leadership might make things worse instead of better.


  1. Democratic leaders create an environment of ownership and shared responsibility.
  2. Decisions are made collaboratively, leading to a heightened sense of democracy and inclusion.
  3. It encourages creativity, innovation, and independent thinking.
  4. It increases trust among team members by giving them the opportunity to be heard and contribute.
  5. The whole team is invested in the success of the organization, leading to greater commitment and dedication from all involved parties.  
  6. Can help build trust and relationships between leaders and followers.
  7. Allows for a more equal distribution of power within the organization and encourages greater employee involvement in decisions that affect them directly.
  8. Utilizes a more democratic management style, which is conducive to an inclusive workplace environment.


  1. Decisions can take longer than if made by a single leader as everyone must have their voice heard in the process.
  2. Some team members may not feel comfortable speaking up or disagreeing with the group majority opinion which can lead to unfair or unproductive decisions being made.
  3. Conflict between team members may arise due to disagreements or lack of consensus on matters discussed within the group setting leading to tension among individuals or within teams as a whole.
  4. Can be time consuming due to multiple levels of input and consensus building required for decisions to be made.
  5. May result in slower decision making if individual opinions are not aligned or everyone does not agree on the best solution for a particular problem/issue.
  6. If there is mistrust between leaders and followers, it can be difficult to reach consensus in a timely manner as each opinion must be taken into consideration before a final decision is

Autocratic Leadership

Autocratic leadership is a type of managerial style characterized by a strong authoritative presence and a hierarchical power structure that allows one individual to hold absolute control in decision-making. It typically involves the leader deciding on policies and delegating tasks without taking into account the opinions of their subordinates. This type of leadership is generally seen as an authoritarian model which can lead to resistance from those governed, since it does not promote participative decision-making processes or encourage open dialogue between members of the team.

Autocratic leadership is a style of management where the leader has complete control over decision-making, with little to no input from subordinates. The autocratic leader makes all decisions and enforces them without question or discussion. This leadership style can be effective in certain situations, such as when quick and decisive action is needed in times of crisis.

However, autocratic leadership can also have many negative consequences. Employees may feel disrespected and undervalued if their opinions are not taken into account. This can lead to low morale, decreased job satisfaction, and high turnover rates. Additionally, an autocratic leader may become too reliant on their own ideas and fail to consider alternative solutions that could lead to better outcomes for the organization.


  1. Decisions can be made quickly and efficiently.
  2. Can bring stability and order to a chaotic situation.
  3. Can provide clear direction with no room for confusion or misunderstanding.
  4. Leader has full control over decision-making which can reduce opportunities for errors or mistakes.
  5. Can lead to higher productivity in the workplace due to a focus on results and efficiency instead of long extended discussions about potential outcomes of decisions made.
  6. Autocratic leaders often possess a high level of expertise and knowledge which helps them make informed decisions.
  7. Autocratic leadership can help to maintain order and structure in an organization.
  8. Clear expectations can be set and enforced by autocratic leaders.
  9. Autocratic leadership can result in increased productivity due to the leader’s clear direction.


  1. Does not allow for input from team members, which can lead to lower morale, lack of motivation, and feelings of unimportance among team members.
  2. The leader may become too focused on their own opinions and ideas, leading to a lack of creativity and innovation in decision making processes.
  3. Autocratic leaders may become too authoritarian, leading to resistance from team members or followers who are not comfortable with their methods of decision making or management style overall.
  4. This style of leadership may lead to high employee turnover since employees often feel undervalued and unappreciated.
  5. Decisions can be made without considering input from other team members, which may lead to ineffective solutions or decisions.
  6. Autocracy often results in emotional disengagement for team members, leading to decreased morale and motivation.
  7. Rigid structures imposed by autocrats prevent the development of creative problem

Laissez-faire Leadership

Laissez-faire suggests allowing them to do. This leadership style is the least intrusive and holds decision makers accountable for the work. This leadership style inspires many team members to offer their best performance, improving the organisation’s efficiency and productivity. Laissez-faire Leadership is a management style whereby the leader relinquishes control and decision-making to subordinates, leaving them with autonomy to manage their own tasks. This approach to leadership encourages independent problem solving and decision making from team members, while the leader provides minimal guidance or direction. It is derived from French economic ideology which promotes an absence of government intervention in the economy, allowing it to function freely.

Laissez-faire leadership is a style of management in which leaders adopt a hands-off approach and give their employees the freedom to work independently. This style of leadership is characterized by minimal direction or guidance from the leader, allowing team members to take initiative and make decisions on their own. Laissez-faire leaders trust their team’s expertise and abilities and believe that they can achieve success without constant supervision.

While laissez-faire leadership can be effective in certain situations, it may not be suitable for all organizations or teams. Without clear direction or guidance, some employees may struggle to stay on task or prioritize tasks effectively. Additionally, this style of leadership can lead to a lack of accountability and responsibility among team members if expectations are not clearly established.


  1. It allows employees to take initiative and make their own decisions, which can lead to increased motivation and productivity.
  2. It encourages creativity as employees are free to explore new ideas and solutions without fear of failure or criticism from management.
  3. It reduces stress levels both for managers and employees, as the manager does not have to micro-manage every decision or issue that arises.
  4. It reduces costs for the organization as fewer resources are needed for managerial oversight.
  5. It builds trust between managers and employees by allowing them to work together in an open and collaborative environment.
  6. Empowers employees to take ownership of their work and performance.
  7. Encourages risk-taking which can lead to innovative ideas or solutions.


  1. Employees may lack direction or guidance from management if left unchecked, leading to confusion or disagreements among team members.
  2. Without proper oversight, employees may be more likely to make mistakes that could negatively affect the business’s bottom line or reputation.
  3. Performance may suffer if employees do not feel a sense.
  4. May lack direction and cause confusion among employees as to what is expected of them and how they should execute a task or project properly.
  5. Can lead to poor performance due to lack of feedback, guidance, and mentorship from management or leadership team members.
  6. Can create a competitive environment that rewards quantity over quality of work produced, leading to reduced morale amongst staff members not performing at the highest level possible.
  7. May not be suitable for all tasks or projects as some require close supervision in order for it to be completed successfully and efficiently within

Strategic Leadership

Strategic Leadership is a prominent concept in the field of organizational management which focuses on an individual’s ability to make decisions and take action in order to achieve organizational objectives. It involves providing direction, securing resources and motivating others to attain predetermined goals. Strategic Leaders are often responsible for setting the vision, mission and values of the organization and have the responsibility of creating an environment that results in sustainable competitive advantage.

Strategic leadership is the act of guiding a business or organization towards achieving their goals and objectives. It involves developing a clear vision, setting priorities, and making decisions that align with the overall mission of the organization. Strategic leaders must be able to anticipate future trends and changes in their industry, as well as identify potential opportunities and threats.

Effective strategic leadership requires strong communication skills, both in terms of conveying the vision to employees and stakeholders, as well as actively listening to feedback from all parties involved. Leaders also need to be adaptable and able to pivot quickly when necessary, while still maintaining focus on long-term goals. They must also have an understanding of financial management principles, including budgeting and forecasting.Finally, strategic leaders must foster a culture of continuous improvement within their organization. This includes investing in employee development programs, encouraging innovation and experimentation, and regularly assessing performance metrics to identify areas for growth.


  1. Strategic leadership encourages creative problem solving and decision making.
  2. It allows for efficient use of resources, as it prioritizes tasks and goals.
  3. It helps to ensure business objectives are met in a timely manner.
  4. Strategic leadership promotes innovation by encouraging teams to think outside the box.
  5. It can help foster a culture of collaboration and cooperation within an organization.
  6. Strategic leaders can create a compelling vision for the future of the organization.
  7. They can facilitate clear communication which encourages collaboration and teamwork.
  8. They can identify opportunities for growth and innovation within the organization.
  9. They can better prepare an organization for potential challenges ahead by anticipating them and developing contingency plans accordingly.


  1. Strategy development requires knowledge and experience which may not be available in all leaders.
  2. If there is a lack of communication between strategy makers and implementers, it can lead to confusion and mismanagement of resources.
  3. Strategic leadership may not be suitable for organizations with unstable environments or those prone to rapid change that require quick decisions without forethought or planning.
  4. It can take time to develop effective strategic plans and if mistakes are made, it could cost the company money or other

Transformational Leadership

Transformational Leadership is a type of leadership style which is characterised by the leader’s ability to motivate and inspire their followers to think differently and achieve higher goals. It involves the leader providing guidance and support to followers, as well as engaging in behaviours that engender trust and loyalty. The principal aspects of this leadership style include articulating a vision, developing strategies for reaching that vision, creating a team-oriented environment, and offering individualised support for each team member.

Transformational leadership is a style of leadership that focuses on inspiring and empowering employees to reach their full potential. This type of leadership involves creating a vision for the organization and communicating it in a way that inspires others to join in pursuit of this common goal. Transformational leaders are known for being charismatic, visionary, and able to motivate even the most hard-to-reach employees.

One key aspect of transformational leadership is its focus on personal development. These leaders prioritize helping each individual employee grow both personally and professionally, recognizing that this benefits both the individual and the organization as a whole. They provide mentorship, coaching, and training opportunities so that employees can improve their skills and become more confident in their abilities.

Another characteristic of transformational leaders is their ability to create a positive work environment. They understand the importance of fostering a culture where employees feel valued, respected, and supported.

Pros of Transformational Leadership:

  1. Increases motivation and morale in the workplace.
  2. Can inspire others to work hard and strive for success.
  3. Develops positive relationships between leaders and followers.
  4. Encourages creativity and innovation within the group.  
  5. Gives followers a sense of purpose and belonging.

Cons of Transformational Leadership:

  1. Can be difficult to implement in a team setting if some members are resistant to change or unwilling to take initiative.
  2. Can lead to over-dependence on the leader, which can lead to reduced autonomy among team members.
  3. Requires a great deal of trust from both sides which can be difficult to establish initially within a group dynamic.
  4. May not always be seen as successful due to its dependence on individual personalities and relationships between leader and follower(s).  
  5. It may involve too much focus on individual needs

Transactional Leadership

Transactional Leadership is an approach to leadership that views the leader and the follower as two distinct entities, with the leader providing guidance in exchange for some form of reward or recognition. It focuses on goal achievement through reinforcement of behaviours and outcomes, often through a system of rewards and punishments. The leader holds subordinates accountable for their behavior, provides clear expectations, and offers incentives or recognition for meeting or exceeding goals.

Transactional leadership is a style of leadership that focuses on the exchange between leaders and their followers. This type of leadership is often used in settings where the goal is to maintain stability and efficiency, such as in business or government organizations. The transactional leader sets clear expectations for their followers and rewards them for meeting those expectations.

Transactional leaders are known for being task-oriented, focusing on accomplishing goals and meeting deadlines. They use a system of rewards and punishments to motivate their followers to work harder and achieve better results. These rewards can come in many forms, such as bonuses or promotions, while punishments may include reprimands or demotions.

While some view transactional leadership as rigid and inflexible, it can be an effective way to manage large groups of people with diverse skills and talents.


  1. Establishes clear expectations and roles for employees.
  2. Motivates employees to reach goals through rewards and recognition.
  3. Easily adaptable to different types of work environments.
  4. Focuses on tasks, results and outcomes.
  5. Allows for quick decision making and task completion.
  6. Allows for clear, unambiguous instructions to be given and expectations to be set.
  7. Quickly establishes a team environment and promotes efficiency.
  8. Focuses on immediate objectives which can provide a timely reward or incentive to employees.
  9. Encourages open communication between managers and subordinates.


  1. Doesn’t allow for personal development or growth of employees’ skillsets.
  2. May lead to overbearing micromanagement from the leader.
  3. Little incentive for out-of-the-box thinking or creative solutions within the team.
  4. Can result in a lack of innovation due to its focus on routine tasks and goals only.  
  5. Can lead to feelings of alienation among coworkers if the leader isn’t supportive or encouraging enough towards them.
  6. Focuses on short-term goals with little regard to long-term growth or development of team members.
  7. Can lead to an unhealthy level of competition amongst the team and discourage collaboration or teamwork.
  8. Creates a top-down management style which can have a negative effect on morale and creativity among employees if not properly managed.
  9. Does not allow for much freedom of exploration amongst team members nor does it foster any kind of innovation within the organization’s structure or policy

Coach-Style Leadership.

Coach-style leadership is a form of leadership which focuses on individual development and improvement. It is a type of transformational leadership which focuses on the personal growth of each employee or team member, using the leader’s knowledge, skills and experience to guide them in their development. The leader encourages learning and provides feedback to ensure that employees understand how their actions affect their performance.

Coach-style leadership is a management approach that emphasizes the development of employees through mentoring, guidance, and training. This style of leadership is becoming increasingly popular among organizations as it encourages collaboration and innovation within teams. A coach-style leader focuses on creating a positive work environment where employees are motivated to achieve their goals.

One of the key aspects of coach-style leadership is providing continuous feedback to employees. By offering constructive criticism, leaders can help their team members improve their skills and become more effective in their roles. Additionally, this type of leadership encourages employees to take ownership of their work and empowers them to make decisions that will benefit the organization.

Another important aspect of coach-style leadership is setting clear expectations for employees. This involves outlining specific goals and objectives for each team member while also providing the necessary resources for them to achieve these targets.


  1. Allows for clear communication and expectations to be set.
  2. Can help motivate staff by providing constructive feedback and guidance.
  3. Encourages delegation and collaboration among team members.
  4. Creates a sense of accountability within the team.
  5. Fosters an environment of open dialogue and shared learning opportunities among team members.
  6. Provides clear direction and guidance on how to achieve goals.
  7. Can provide employees with a sense of security as decisions are made for them.
  8. Can help reduce anxiety as employees don’t have to make difficult decisions themselves.
  9. Can promote quicker decision-making processes in the workplace.
  10. Encourages employees to reach their maximum potential through regular feedback and support.


  1. Can lead to micromanagement if not managed properly.
  2. May lead to employees feeling unchallenged if there is too much direction from the leader.  
  3. Can create an atmosphere of fear if staff feel like they’re being constantly criticized or judged by their leader, rather than supported and encouraged in their efforts.
  4. Can hinder creativity or innovation if there is too much control or structure imposed on tasks or projects by the leader.
  5. The leader has higher demands placed on them due to their need to.
  6. Employees may become too reliant on their supervisor and not take initiative or make decisions independently.
  7. May lead to employees feeling micromanaged due to frequent oversight into their work tasks and performance levels.
  8. It can lead to a decrease in creativity and innovation, as the coach’s ideas are often predominant over those of the team members’
  9. The coaching style of leadership can cause some team members to feel discouraged if they are unable to meet the coach’s expectations or complete

Bureaucratic Leadership.

Bureaucratic Leadership is a form of organizational leadership that is characterized by adherence to rules, regulations, and procedures. This style of leadership emphasizes the importance of following established norms and adhering to formalized systems in order to achieve desired objectives. Bureaucratic Leaders utilize hierarchical structures to create efficiency and order, often making decisions for their subordinates.

Bureaucratic leadership is a style of management that emphasizes following established procedures, rules and regulations. This type of leadership is typically found in government agencies, large corporations or organizations with complex operations. The bureaucratic leader focuses on enforcing rules and policies to maintain order and stability within the organization.

One of the key characteristics of bureaucratic leadership is its rigid adherence to rules and procedures. This can create a highly structured environment where decisions are made based on established protocols rather than individual creativity or initiative. Bureaucratic leaders often rely on hierarchical structures to delegate tasks, which can limit employee autonomy and creativity. While this approach may be effective in some situations, it can also stifle innovation and hinder organizational growth. Despite its limitations, bureaucratic leadership has its advantages. It provides a clear chain of command that allows for efficient decision-making processes.


  1. Bureaucratic leadership provides structure and stability to a workplace.
  2. It encourages clear communication as rules and regulations are clearly defined.
  3. It has a system of checks and balances to ensure that tasks are managed efficiently.
  4. Staff members feel safe in knowing exactly what is expected of them in the workplace.
  5. Bureaucratic leaders tend to provide consistent feedback which allows for improvement opportunities for staff members.
  6. Clear chain of command, responsibilities and communication.
  7. Possibility for standardization and uniform processes.
  8. Can be useful in large organizations with many employees.
  9. Easier to monitor progress and enforce adherence to rules.
  10. Decisions are made based on established policies and procedure


  1. Bureaucracy can stifle creativity due to its rigid approach to problem solving and decision making.
  2. It can lead to a sense of complacency as there may not be much room for personal growth or development within the system.
  3. Decision making can become slow and bureaucratic processes due to numerous layers of management having input on each decision made.  
  4. Staff members may become disengaged as they feel their opinions are not taken into
  5. Rules can be inflexible and rigidly enforced, leading to dissatisfaction among employees.
  6. Creates a hierarchical structure that can stifle creativity and innovation in the workplace.
  7. Difficult to quickly make decisions or adjust strategies due to bureaucratically-induced delays and paperwork requirements.
  8. Can lead to a “red tape” mentality where following procedures is more important than achieving results or providing customer service excellence.
  9. Bureaucratic leadership may lead to an environment where poor performance is overlooked or ignored due to the inability of employees to challenge the system due

In conclusion,it is clear that there are a variety of leadership styles that can be employed to foster team success. The most important takeaway is to find the style that works best for the particular situation and unique strengths of the individual in charge. Leaders should strive to develop a style that not only helps them achieve their goals but also works towards the ultimate success of their organization. Ultimately, mastering different leadership styles gives leaders the flexibility and resourcefulness needed to successfully navigate any challenge.

An effective leader will be able to identify their own style and use it to create a positive work environment that encourages collaboration, innovation, and growth. Leaders should also recognize that different environments and situations require them to change their approach in order to best suit their team’s needs.

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